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As a result, the push-button safety was redesigned using a rotating lever. Originally the M1 carbine did not have a bayonet lug, but it was often issued with an M3 fighting knife or a bayonet converted into a fighting knife.
Due to requests from the field, the carbine was modified to incorporate a bayonet lug attached to the barrel band starting in After the war, the bayonet lug was added to many M1 carbines during the arsenal refurbishing process.
By the start of the Korean War , the bayonet lug-equipped M1 was standard issue. It is now rare to find an original M1 carbine without the bayonet lug.
The M1 carbine mounts the standard M4 bayonet , which was based on the earlier M3 fighting knife and formed the basis for the later M5 , M6 and M7 bayonet -knives.
A folding-stock version of the carbine the M1A1 was also developed after a request for a compact and light infantry arm for airborne troops.
The Inland Division of General Motors manufactured , of them in two product runs in late Army airborne units and the U.
Marine Corps. As carbines were reconditioned, parts such as the magazine catch, rear sight, barrel band without bayonet lug, and stock were upgraded with current standard-issue parts.
Also, both during and after World War II, many semi-automatic M1 carbines were converted to select-fire M2 carbines by using the T17 and T18 conversion kits.
During World War II, the T23 M3 flash hider was designed to reduce the muzzle flash from the carbine, but was not introduced into service until the advent of the M3 carbine.
The M1 carbine was used with the M8 grenade launcher see M7 grenade launcher , which was developed in early It was fired with the.
Stress from firing rifle grenades would eventually crack the carbine's stock. It also could not use the M8 launcher with an M7 auxiliary "booster" charge to extend its range without breaking the stock.
This made it a type of emergency-issue weapon. A total of over 6. The largest producer was the Inland division of General Motors , but many others were made by contractors as diverse as IBM , the Underwood Typewriter Company, and Rock-Ola Manufacturing Corporation.
Few contractors made all the parts for carbines bearing their names: some makers bought parts from other major contractors or sub-contracted minor parts to companies like Marlin Firearms or Auto-Ordnance.
Parts by all makers were required to be interchangeable. Often one company would get ahead or behind in production and parts would be shipped from one company to the other to help them catch up on their quota.
When receivers were shipped for this purpose the manufacturers would often mark them for both companies. Some of the strangest combinations were the M1's made by the combined efforts of Underwood and Quality Hardware, resulting in the manufacturer mark UN-QUALITY.
Many carbines were refurbished at several arsenals after the war, with many parts interchanged from original maker carbines.
True untouched war production carbines, therefore, are the most desirable for collectors. The M1 carbine was also one of the most cost effective weapons used by the United States military during World War II.
These were major factors in the United States military decision to adopt the M1 carbine, especially when considering the vast numbers of weapons and ammunition manufactured and transported by the United States during World War II.
The M1 carbine with its reduced-power. However, it was markedly superior to the. As a result, the carbine was soon widely issued to infantry officers, American paratroopers , non-commissioned officers , ammunition bearers, forward artillery observers, and other frontline troops.
During World War II a standard U. Army infantry company was issued a total of 28 M1 carbines. The M1 carbine gained generally high praise for its small size, light weight and firepower, especially by those troops who were unable to use a full-size rifle as their primary weapon.
In the Asiatic-Pacific Theater , soldiers and guerrilla forces operating in heavy jungle with only occasional enemy contact praised the carbine for its small size, light weight, and firepower.
Army and the U. The carbine's exclusive use of non-corrosive-primer ammunition was found to be a godsend by troops and ordnance personnel serving in the Pacific, where barrel corrosion was a significant issue with the corrosive primers used in.
Initially, the M1 carbine was intended to have a select-fire capability, but the requirement for rapid production of the new carbine resulted in the omission of this feature from the Light Rifle Program.
On 26 October , in response to the Germans' widespread use of automatic weapons, especially the Sturmgewehr 44 assault rifle , the select-fire M2 carbine was introduced, along with a new round magazine.
The M2 had a fully automatic rate-of-fire of about rounds-per-minute. Although actual M2 production began late in the war April , U.
Ordnance issued conversion-part kits to allow field conversion of semi-auto M1 carbines to the selective-fire M2 configuration.
In the Pacific, both converted and original M2 carbines saw limited use in the last days of the fighting in the Philippines. The M3 carbine was an M2 carbine with the M2 infrared night sight or sniperscope.
For the first time, U. A team of two or three soldiers was used to operate the weapon and provide support. At that point, the operator would fire a burst of automatic fire at the greenish images of enemy soldiers.
The system was refined over time, and by the Korean War the improved M3 infrared night sight was in service.
The M3 sight has a longer effective range than its predecessor, about yards meters. However, it still required the user to carry a heavy backpack-mounted battery pack to power the scope and infrared light.
They were used primarily in static defensive positions in Korea to locate troops attempting to infiltrate in darkness. M3 operators would not only use their carbines to dispatch individual targets, but also used tracer ammo to identify troop concentrations for machine gunners to decimate.
By the Korean War , the select fire M2 carbine had largely replaced the submachine-gun in U. However, in Korea, all versions of the carbine soon acquired a widespread reputation for jamming in extreme cold weather,    this being eventually traced to weak return springs, freezing of parts due to overly viscous lubricants and inadequate cartridge recoil impulse as the result of subzero temperatures.
There were also many complaints from individual soldiers that the carbine bullet failed to stop heavily clothed     or gear-laden    North Korean and Chinese PVA troops even at close range and after multiple hits.
A official U. Army evaluation reported that The record contains a few examples of carbine-aimed fire felling an enemy soldier at this distance or perhaps a little more.
But they are so few in number that no general conclusion can be drawn from them. Where carbine fire had proved killing effect, approximately 95 percent of the time the target was dropped at less than 50 yards.
By experience, they would come to handle it semi-automatically, but it took prolonged battle hardening to bring about this adjustment in the human equation.
Despite its mixed reputation, the M2 carbine's firepower often made it the weapon of choice, when it came to night patrols in Korea.
The M1 and M2 carbines were again issued to U. These weapons began to be replaced by the M16 in , and they were generally out of service by s, although they were used in limited numbers by U.
At least , M1 and M2 carbines were given to the South Vietnamese and were widely used throughout the Vietnam War. They were used by every branch of the U.
Armed Forces. After World War II , the M1 and M2 carbines were widely exported to U. During World War II , the British SAS used the M1 and M1A1 carbines after The weapon was taken into use simply because a decision had been taken by Allied authorities to supply.
It was handy enough to parachute with, and, in addition, could be easily stowed in an operational Jeep. Other specialist intelligence collection units, such as 30 Assault Unit sponsored by the Naval Intelligence Division of the British Admiralty, which operated across the entire Allied area of operations, also made use of this weapon.
The carbine continued to be utilized as late as the Malayan Emergency , by the Police Field Force of the Royal Malaysian Police , along with other units of the British Army, were issued the M2 carbine for both jungle patrols and outpost defense.
Small numbers of captured M1 carbines were used by German forces in World War II, particularly after D-Day. The " a " came from the country name in German; in this case, Amerika.
It was also used by German police and border guards in Bavaria after World War II and into the s. The carbines were stamped according to the branch they were in service with; for instance, those used by the border guard were stamped " Bundesgrenzschutz ".
Some of these weapons were modified with different sights, finishes, and sometimes new barrels.
A variant was produced shortly after World War II by the Japanese manufacturer Howa Machinery, under U. These were issued to all branches of the Japan Self-Defense Forces , and large numbers of them found their way to Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War.
Howa also made replacement parts for US-made M1 carbines issued to Japanese police and military. The M1 carbine was also used by the Israeli Palmach -based special forces in the Arab—Israeli War.
And, because of their compact size and semi-auto capabilities, they continued to be used by Israeli Defence Forces after the creation of Israel.
The Israeli police still use the M1 carbine as a standard long gun for non-combat elements and Mash'az volunteers.
The U. Over time, the SKS and eventually the AK would replace the carbine to become the dominant weapons used by the Viet Cong.
The Republic of Korea Armed Forces received 1,, M1 and M2 carbines from to South Korea also took an active role in the Vietnam War.
From to , South Korea sent more than , troops to South Vietnam armed primarily with M1 and M2 carbines, as well as M1 Garands. The government of the Philippines still issues M1 carbines to the infantrymen of the Philippine Army's 2nd Infantry Division [ citation needed ] assigned in Luzon Island some units are issued just M14 automatic rifles and M1 carbines and the Civilian Auxiliary Forces Geographical Unit CAFGU and Civilian Volunteer Organizations CVO spread throughout the Philippines.
Certain provincial police units of the Philippine National Police PNP still use government-issue M1 carbines as well as some operating units of the National Bureau of Investigation NBI.
In many provinces of the Philippines, M1 carbines are still highly valued as a light small arm. Elements of the New People's Army and Islamic Secessionist movement value the carbine as a lightweight weapon and preferred choice for mountain and ambush operations.
The M1 carbine has become one of the most recognized firearms in Philippine society, with the Marikina City-based company ARMSCOR Philippines still continuing to manufacture.
The M1 and M2 carbines were widely used by military, police, and security forces and their opponents during the many guerrilla and civil wars throughout Latin America until the s, when they were mostly replaced by more modern designs.
A notable user was Che Guevara who used them during the Cuban Revolution and in Bolivia where he was executed by a Bolivian soldier armed with an M2 carbine.
Cienfuegos' carbine is on display in the Museum of the Revolution Cuba. The unit data provided below refers to original U. Ordnance contract carbines the United States provided these countries.
The standard-issue versions of the carbine officially listed and supported were the M1, M1A1, M2 and M3. Carbines originally issued with the M1A1 folding stock were made by Inland, a division of General Motors and originally came with the early "L" nonadjustable sight and barrel band without bayonet lug.
Inland production of M1A1 carbines was interspersed with Inland production of M1 carbines with the standard stock. Stocks were often swapped out as carbines were refurbished at arsenals.
An original Inland carbine with an original M1A1 stock is rare today. Initially, the M1 carbine was intended to have a selective-fire capability, but the decision was made to put the M1 into production without this feature.
Fully automatic capability was incorporated into the design of the M2 an improved, selective-fire version of the M1 , introduced in The M2 featured the late M1 improvements to the rear sight, addition of a bayonet lug, and other minor changes.
Research into a conversion kit for selective fire began May ; the first kit was developed by Inland engineers, and known as the T4. Inland was awarded a contract for T4 carbines in September Although the conversion was seen as satisfactory, the heavier round magazine put greater strain on the magazine catch, necessitating the development of a sturdier catch.
The slide, sear, and stock design also had to be modified. On fully automatic fire, the T4 model could fire about rounds per minute, but generated a manageable recoil.
Although some carbines were marked at the factory as M2, the only significant difference between an M1 and M2 carbine is in the fire control group.
The military issued field conversion kits T17 and T18 to convert an M1 to an M2. Legally a carbine marked M2 is always a machine gun for national firearms registry purposes.
These M2 parts including the heavier M2 stock were standardized for arsenal rebuild of M1 and M1A1 carbines. A modified round bolt replaced the original flat top bolt to save machining steps in manufacture.
Many sources erroneously refer to this round bolt as an 'M2 bolt' but it was developed as a standard part for new manufacture M1 and later M2 carbines and as a replacement part, with priority given to use on M1A1 and M2 carbines.
Despite being in demand, very few M2 carbines saw use during World War II, and then mostly in the closing days against Japan. The M2 model was the most widely used Carbine variant during the Korean War.
He found that many troops complained on the lack of effective range of the gun, which allowed the enemy to get close enough to throw hand grenades.
A more detailed analysis showed however that most troops who complained actually tended to run low on ammo, because they fired their M2 on fully automatic too soon.
Troops who fired their guns on semi-automatic at distance generally complained less about the M2's effectiveness.
Generally, the more seasoned troops used the latter approach. The carbine was usually given to second line troops administrative, support, etc.
Marshall noted that almost all killing shots with carbines in Korea were at ranges of 50 yards or less. It was unsurprising therefore that the M2 was a preferred weapon for night patrols.
The M2 was also used in the early stages of the Vietnam War by special forces, ARVN advisers, and air crews. Contemporary authors have struggled to categorize the M2 carbine.
On one hand, it is more powerful than a submachine gun and is considered by some to be an assault rifle , even though it fires a projectile considerably less powerful than the StG 44 's 7.
On the other hand, the M2 can also be considered a precursor of the modern personal defense weapon PDW concept, even though contemporary guns in that category, like the FN P90 , fire substantially different cartridges like the 5.
The M3 carbine was an M2 carbine fitted with a mount designed to accept an infrared sight for use at night. It was initially used with the M1 sniperscope , and an active infrared sight, and saw action in with the Army during the invasion of Okinawa.
Before the M3 carbine and M1 sniperscope were type-classified, they were known as the T3 and T, respectively. The system continued to be developed, and by the time of the Korean War , the M3 carbine was used with the M3 sniperscope.
The M2 sniper scope extended the effective nighttime range of the M3 carbine to yards. In the later stages of the Korean War, an improved version of the M3 carbine, with a revised mount, a forward pistol grip, and a new M3 sniperscope design was used in the latter stages of Korea and briefly in Vietnam.
The M3 sniperscope had a large active infrared spotlight mounted on top of the scope body itself, allowing use in the prone position.
The Ingram SAM rifles are M1 carbine derivatives in 5. The 5. They did not catch on in competition against the Ruger Mini in both the police and civilian markets.
The Ingram SAM rifles are occasionally found on auction sites for collectors. The Chiappa is not Gas operated and instead relies on Blowback operation.
Several companies manufactured copies of the M1 carbine after World War II, which varied in quality. Some companies used a combination of original USGI and new commercial parts, while others manufactured entire firearms from new parts, which may or may not be of the same quality as the originals.
These copies were marketed to the general public and police agencies but were not made for or used by the U. In , firearms designer Melvin M. Johnson introduced a version of the M1 carbine called the "Spitfire" that fired a 5.
While the concept had some military application when used for this role in the selective-fire M2 carbine, it was not pursued, and few Spitfire carbines were made.
More recently, the Auto-Ordnance division of Kahr Arms began production of an M1 carbine replica in based on the typical M1 carbine as issued in , without the later adjustable sight or barrel band with bayonet lug.
The original Auto-Ordnance had produced various parts for IBM carbine production during World War II, but did not manufacture complete carbines until the introduction of this replica.
The AOM and AOM models no longer produced featured birch stocks and handguards, Parkerized receivers, flip-style rear sights and barrel bands without bayonet lugs.
The current AOM and AOM models are identical except for American walnut stocks and handguards. In , Inland Manufacturing, LLC in Dayton, Ohio introduced the reproduction of the "Inland M1 Carbine".
Inland Manufacturing, LLC is a private entity that is producing reproductions of the M1 Carbine and M1A1 Paratrooper models that were built by the original Inland Division of General Motors from to The new Inland M1 carbines feature many of the same characteristics of the original Inland Carbines and are manufactured in the USA.
A round mag catch was utilized to allow high-capacity magazines. The M1A1 is modeled after a late production M1A1 Paratrooper model with a folding "low wood" walnut stock, Type two barrel band, and includes the same adjustable sights which were actually introduced in An Israeli arms company Advanced Combat Systems offers a modernized bullpup variant called the Hezi SM The company claims accuracy of 1.
After World War II, the M1 carbine became a popular plinking and ranch rifle. It is still popular with civilian shooters around the world and is prized as a historically significant collector's item.
The Carbine continues to be used in military marksmanship training and competitive target matches conducted by rifle clubs affiliated with the Civilian Marksmanship Program CMP.
The M1 carbine can be used for hunting animals such as white-tailed deer and mule deer at close range less than yards , but is definitely underpowered for larger North American game such as elk , moose , and bear.
Some U. The M1 Carbine is also prohibited for hunting in several states such as Pennsylvania  because of the semi-automatic function, and Illinois  which prohibits all non-muzzleloading rifles for big game hunting.
Five-round magazines are commercially made for use in states that limit the capacity of semi-automatic hunting rifles. Some indoor shooting ranges may permit the use of an M-1 Carbine, as its bullet is comparable to magnum handgun rounds, whereas a.
Since about , New Jersey has listed the "M-1 Carbine Type" as a banned assault firearm although many examples of the M1 Carbine technically meet the restrictions on semi-automatic rifles identified by the state's firearm laws.
Police Officers, Active Duty Military or veterans in living in New Jersey are also banned form owning or possessing an M1 Carbine.
Although not specifically banned by name, make or model, M1 Carbines may in some cases be classified as assault weapons under the NY SAFE act if the rifle has features such as bayonet lugs, pistol grips, folding stocks and flash suppressors.
Although 5 round magazines have been produced, they are not very commonly found. The M1 Carbine was also used by various law enforcement agencies and prison guards, and was prominently carried by riot police during the civil unrest of the late s and early s; until it was replaced in those roles by more modern.
The ease of use and great adaptability of the weapon led to it being used by Malcolm X and Patty Hearst. Both were featured in famous news photographs carrying a version the carbine.
One of these firearms was also the weapon used in the assassination of notorious American mobster Benjamin "Bugsy" Siegel.
The ammunition used by the military with the carbine include: . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Type of carbine. World War II Hukbalahap Rebellion Chinese Civil War limited First Indochina War Indonesian National Revolution  Korean War Malayan Emergency Second Taiwan Strait Crisis Algerian War Suez Crisis Cuban Revolution Vietnam War Laotian Civil War Bay of Pigs Invasion  Indonesia—Malaysia confrontation Six-Day War Cambodian Civil War The Troubles Angolan Civil War Black September  Lebanese Civil War Mexican Drug War Syrian Civil War .
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The Bay of Pigs: Cuba Elite Osprey Publishing. Arab Armies of the Middle East Wars 2. Men-at-Arms Aug 7, Retrieved Jun 20, The M1 Carbine.
Derek 6 June Archived from the original on 4 March Military Small Arms of the 20th Century 7th ed. Krause Publications. James C.
Routledge, Dec 1, Washington, D. World War II Small Arms. Chartwell House. The Gun Room Press. The American Rifleman.
NRA Publications. The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II. New York: Orbis Publishing Ltd. Harrison, "Who Designed the M1 Carbine?
Cartridges of the World 6th ed. Iola, WI: DBI Books Inc. Green Beret in Vietnam: — The American rifleman goes to war: The guns, troops, and training of World War II as reported in NRA's magazine First ed.
National Rifle Association of America. Ordnance Went Up Front 1st ed. Capt With British Snipers To The Reich. Lancer Militaria.
Small-statured men such as Capt. Shore and Sgt. Audie Murphy liked the carbine, as its small stock dimensions fit them particularly well.
CARBINE, CALIBER. War Department. Jane's Gun Recognition Guide. Harper Collins Publishers. A series of lengthy debates followed, which were finally settled in an unlikely fashion when Canada stated they would use the British.
It was clear this would never happen. Winston Churchill felt a NATO standard was more important than any qualities of the weapon itself and overturned the decision by the previous Labour Minister of Defence , Manny Shinwell , who had already announced an intention to move to the.
It was clear the EM-2 could not be easily adapted to the powerful 7. However, the FAL was more easily adaptable to handle the more powerful, longer round.
It grew in weight and length as a consequence. Churchill had hoped that with the British Commonwealth and other NATO countries adopting the FN FAL the US Army would do so as well, however the US adopted the T44 an updated version of the M1 Garand as the M14 , which had won US trials against a more radical experimental rifle, the T In time, the British position on intermediate cartridges was vindicated, the 7.
Due to combat experience in Vietnam in the mids, the US adopted the AR as the M Chambered for the 5. Some years afterwards, NATO also agreed to move to a smaller round more suitable for full-automatic fire and lighter weapons, ultimately adopting the 5.
Prior to committing to the 5. Around , a pair of the original. However, the concept of an Infantry Personal Weapon which led to the design of the EM-2  was reflected in the SA80 system.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. British bullpup assault rifle. For other uses, see EM2 disambiguation.
Type of Bullpup assault rifle. Bullpup firearms. A Advanced Individual Combat Weapon Armtech C30R ASh AGM-1 L22 Thorneycroft.
Pecheneg Bullpup QBB SAR 21 LMG Steyr AUG HBAR. FN P90 Tavor X95 SMG JS 9 mm QCW Steyr AUG Para Steyr AUG A3 Para XS. Bushmaster Arm Pistol Remington XP Boberg XR9S Bond Arms BullPup 9.
Bor Desert Tech SRS SVU DSR-Precision GmbH DSR-1 M89SR OTsK QBU VSSK Vykhlop Walther WA ENARM Pentagun Franchi mod. ADS amphibious rifle Remington XP Special Purpose Individual Weapon XM25 CDTE.
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